“The President is the direct representative of the American people…” Andrew Jackson defiantly responded to his censure by the Senate. Jacksonians believed the election victory in 1832 was a mandate from the people to kill the National Bank. Jackson withdrew the nation’s deposits from the bank despite protests from Congress and his own Cabinet. Bank President Nicholas Biddle responded by contracting credit- sending the nation into a panic. Congress was powerless to stop Jackson, the Senate’s censure an empty gesture.
Jackson’s victory in the Bank War… radically changed the Presidency. In many ways, he was our first modern President; using the office in a role of national leadership, rather than passive executive. His war on the Bank forever changed the relationship between the President and the American people. Not only did Jackson triumph over Biddle, Clay, Calhoun, and Webster- the Bank War increased the power of the Presidency beyond anything the Framers could have imagined. The voters would continue to look to the President to make policy, not just sit in judgement of Congressional actions. Jackson’s leadership solidified the control a President had over his party- the Democratic party carried out Jackson’s will – “My friends never leave me….”